As cities evolve to become increasingly complex systems of people and interconnected
infrastructure, the impacts of both extreme and long-term environmental change are
significantly heightened. Understanding the resilience of urban systems and communities in
an integrated manner is key to ensure the future sustainability of cities, which face
considerable climatic, economic, and sociodemographic challenges in the 21st century. As
Southeast Asia’s most populous and most dense metropolitan conurbation, and the second
largest urban footprint in the world, Jakarta’s residents are exposed to rapid transformations
of urban structures and systems.